Polaron torpedoes are a weapon designed to deliver a devastating pulse of Polaron particles directly into either an enemy vessel, which if still shielded, will result in a noticeable drop in Shield efficacy or if a ship is unshielded, will disable a ship's systems at random. Whilst not particularly physically damaging and with just two isotons of explosive force (equivalent to a 22nd century Spatial charge), the shield damage and system interference of a Polaron Torpedo make it an invaluable weapon and a key part of the Federation's ship based defence systems.
The system disruption effect is however fairly unstable, for example if you were to fire one at a ships impulse engine, then the pulse could affect any systems within the engine or in a cone spreading out throughout the entire ship, causing anything from a replicator to go offline to a warp core breach. This unpredictable nature of the polaron particles after the torpedoes detonation due to the spread pattern of the torpedo as well as the unpredictable nature of the particles themselves. The Polaron Torpedo should therefore be utilised only with extreme care in all circumstances.